What is Autism?
Autism is classified as one of the
pervasive developmental disorders of the brain. It is not a disease.
classical autism show three types of symptoms: impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal
communication, and unusual or severely limited activities and interests. These symptoms can vary in severity. In
addition, people with autism often have abnormal responses to sounds, touch, or other sensory stimulation.
Symptoms usually appear during the first three years of childhood and continue through life. Researchers have
identified a number of genes that play a role in the disorder. In some children, environmental factors also may play a
role. Studies of people with autism have found abnormalities in several regions of the brain which suggest that
autism results from a disruption of early fetal brain development. Autism affects an estimated 10 to 20 of every
10,000 people, depending on diagnostic criteria used, and strikes males about four times more often than females.
Is there any treatment?
There is currently no cure for autism, but
appropriate treatment may foster relatively normal development and
reduce undesirable behaviors. Educational/behavioral therapies and drug interventions are designed to remedy
specific symptoms. Educational/behavioral therapies emphasize highly structured and often intensive skill-oriented
training. Doctors also may prescribe a variety of drugs to reduce symptoms of autism Other interventions are
available, but few, if any, scientific studies support their use.
What is the prognosis?
People with autism have normal life
expectancies. Symptoms in many children improve with intervention or as
children age. Some people with autism eventually lead normal or near-normal lives. Adolescence can worsen
behavior problems in some children, and parents should be ready to adjust treatment for the child's changing needs.
About a third of children with autistic spectrum disorders eventually develop epilepsy. The risk is highest in
children with severe cognitive impairment and motor deficits.
What research is being done?
NINDS supports studies aimed at identifying
the underlying brain abnormalities of autism through new methods of
brain imaging and other innovative techniques, and at identifying genes that increase the risk of autism.
Researchers also are investigating possible biologic markers present at birth that can identify infants at risk for
the development of autism. Other studies are examining how different brain regions develop and function in relation
to each other, and how alterations in these relationships may result in the signs and symptoms of autism.
Researchers hope these studies will provide new clues about how autism develops and how brain abnormalities affect
|Child’s||Adult||Murray - for||Our comments|
|2500 IU||5000 IU||5000 IU||
|5000-25,000 IU||Best with mixed carotenes (not only beta-carotene)|
|B1 Thiamin||0.6 mg||1.2 mg||10-100 mg|
|B2 Riboflavin||0.6 mg||1.3 mg||10-50 mg|
|B3 Niacin||8 mg||16 mg||10-100 mg|
|B5 Pantothenic||3 mg||5 mg||25-100 mg|
|B6 Pyridoxine||0.6 mg||1.7 mg||25-100 mg||
We recommend about 8 mg of B6 per pound bodyweight (with some children needing significantly less or more), and about 3-4 mg of magnesium per pound bodyweight (B6 must be taken with magnesium). In the P5P form of B6, use 1-2 mg per pound bodyweight Start at a lower dose of B6, and increase gradually.
|B12 CyanoCobalamin||1.2 mcg||2.4 mcg||400 mcg|
|Biotin||12 mcg||30 mcg||100-300 mcg||
|Folic Acid||120 mcg||240 mcg||400 mcg||Take extra if taking DMG (see DMG note)|
|Choline*||250 mg||550 mg||10-100 mg||follow new RDA/AI guidelines of 250 mg for children, 550 for adults|
optimal dosage unclear, but dosages of 12,000 mg have been used to
effectively treat depression and panic disorders, since it is
required for the function
of serotonin and other neurotransmitters.
|C||25 mg||90 mg||100-1000 mg||
250-500 mg, 2x/day.
Some people recommend higher doses.
If diarrhea results, lower dose.
Enhances effects of vitamin C. Mixed bioflavonoids are best. A ratio of 1:2 bioflavonoids to vitamin C seems reasonable.
|D||200 IU||200 IU||100-400 IU||Fat-soluble, so do not take excessive doses (over 1000 IU/day).|
|E||7 mg||15 mg||100-800 IU||150-250 IU. Fat-soluble, so be cautious of overdosing|
Disclaimer: This information is intended as a guide only. This information is offered to you with the understanding that it not be interpreted as medical or professional advice. All medical information needs to be carefully reviewed with your health care provider.